This question was previously asked in

Gujarat Engineering Service 2017 Official Paper (Civil Part 1)

Option 3 : Positive cumulative error

Gujarat Engineering Service 2019 Official Paper (Civil Part 1)

741

150 Questions
150 Marks
90 Mins

**Concept-**

**Compensating errors-**

- These are the errors that are liable to occur in both directions and tend to compensate.
- It is proportional to the square root of the length of the line.

**Cumulative errors-**

- These are the errors that are liable to occur in the same direction and tend to accumulate. The errors thus considerably increase or decrease the actual measurements.

**Positive cumulative error-**

- These are the errors that make the measured lengths more than the actual. Therefore the actual length can be found by subtracting the error from the measured length.

These errors may be caused due to-

**The length of the chain is shorter than the standard length**.

- Bending of links, knots in links, and removal of rings during adjustment of the chain, clogging of rings with mud etc.
- Not applying slope correction to the length measured along slopes.
- Not applying sag correction.
- Not applying temperature correction when the temperature during measurement is less than the standard temperature.

**Negative cumulative errors-**

- These are the errors that make the measurement length less than the actual. Therefore the actual length can be found by adding the error to the measured length.
- These errors may be caused due to the following reasons-
- The length of the chain is more than its standard length, which may be due to the flattening of rings, the opening of joints, etc.
- Not applying the temperature correction when the temperature during measurements is more than the standard temperature
**.**

**Given data and Calculation-**